Efeublätter-Trockenextrakt als Zusatztherapie des Asthma bronchiale geeignet Eine randomisierte, placebokontrollierte Studie, die an 24 Kindern mit einem gesicherten Asthma bronchiale an der Hochgebirgsklinik Davos durchgeführt wurde. (Quelle: H.-J. Mansfeld, H. Höhre, R. Repges, U. Dethlefsen: Therapie des Asthma bronchiale mit Efeublätter-Trockenextrakt. Münch. med. Wschr. 140 (1998), Nr. 3, S. 26 – 30)
A new ferrous iron-uptake transporter, EfeU (YcdN), from Escherichia coli.
Escherichia coli possesses multiple routes for iron uptake. Here we present EfeU (YcdN), a novel iron acquisition system of E. coli strain Nissle 1917. Laboratory strains of E. coli such as K12 lack a functional (efeU) ycdN gene caused by a frameshift mutation. EfeU, a member of the oxidase-dependent iron transporters (OFeT), is a homologue of the iron permease Ftr1p from yeast. The ycdN gene is part of the ycdNOB tricistronic operon which is expressed in response to iron deprivation in a Fur-dependent manner. Expression of efeU resulted in improved growth of an E. coli mutant lacking all known iron-uptake systems and mediated increased iron uptake into cells. Furthermore, the presence of other divalent metal cations did not impair growth of strains expressing efeU. The EfeU protein functioned as ferrous iron permease in proteoliposomes in vitro. Topology analysis indicated that EfeU is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein exhibiting seven transmembrane helices. Two REXXE motifs within transmembrane helices of OFeT family members are implicated in iron translocation. Site-directed mutagenesis of each REGLE motif of EfeU diminished iron uptake in vivo and growth yield. In vitro the EfeU variant protein with an altered first REGLE motif was impaired in iron permeation, whereas activity of the EfeU variant with a mutation in the second motif was similar to the wild-type protein.
Institute for Microbiology, Martin-Luther-University, Halle, Germany.
(Quelle: Grosse C, Scherer J, Koch D, Otto M, Taudte N, Grass G., Mol Microbiol., 2006 Oct;62(1):120-31.)
Dynamics of beta2-adrenergic receptor-ligand complexes on living cells.
The agonist-induced dynamic regulation of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) on living cells was examined by means of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) using a fluorescence-labeled arterenol derivative (Alexa-NA) in hippocampal neurons and in alveolar epithelial type II cell line A549. Alexa-NA specifically bound to the beta (2)-AR of neurons with a K(D) value of 1.29 +/- 0.31 nM and of A549 cells with a K(D) of 5.98 +/- 1.62 nM. The receptor density equaled 4.5 +/- 0.9 microm(-2) in neurons (rho(N)) and 19.9 +/- 2.0 microm(-2) in A549 cells (rho(A549)). Kinetic experiments revealed comparable on-rate constants in both cell types (k(on) = 0.49 +/- 0.03 s(-1) nM(-1) in neurons and k(on) = 0.12 +/- 0.02 s(-1) nM(-1) in A549 cells). In addition to the free ligand diffusing with a D(free) of (2.11 +/- 0.04) x 10(-6) cm(2)/s, in both cell types receptor-ligand complexes with two distinct diffusion coefficients, D(bound1) (fast lateral mobility) and D(bound2) (hindered mobility), were observed [D(bound1) = (5.23 +/- 0.64) x 10(-8) cm(2)/s and D(bound2) = (6.05 +/- 0.23) x 10(-10) cm(2)/s for neurons, and D(bound1) = (2.88 +/- 1.72) x 10(-8) cm(2)/s and D(bound2) = (1.01 +/- 0.46) x 10(-9) cm(2)/s for A549 cells]. Fast lateral mobility of the receptor-ligand complex was detected immediately after addition of the ligand, whereas hindered mobility (D(bound2)) was observed after a delay of 5 min in neurons (up to 38% of total binding) and of 15-20 min in A549 cells (up to 40% of total binding). Thus, the receptor-ligand complexes with low mobility were formed during receptor regulation. Consistently, stimulation of receptor internalization using the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin shifted the ratio of receptor-ligand complexes toward D(bound2). Intracellular FCS measurements and immunocytochemical studies confirmed the appearance of endocytosed receptor-ligand complexes in the cytoplasm subjacent to the plasma membrane after stimulation with the agonist terbutaline (1 microM). This regulatory receptor internalization was blocked after preincubation with propranolol and with a cholesterol-complexing saponin alpha-hederin.
(Quelle: Hegener O, Prenner L, Runkel F, Baader SL, Kappler J, Haberlein H., Biochemistry., 2004 May 25;43(20):6190-9)
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